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國資國企改革將聚力破局四路并進

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    下半年,隨著調整重組、混改、國資管理體制改革、“債轉股”四方面改革進一步深化,國資國企改革將聚力破局。

  今年以來,隨著改革步入落地期,國資委加大調研摸底力度。4月以來,國資委高層深入近30家改革試點央企展開密集調研,督導改革。一系列深層次改革正穩步推進。近日,中國聯通與騰訊、百度成立聯合實驗室,共同打造5G生態,將混改向縱深引入;騰訊、吉利43億元接手中鐵總動車網絡49%股權,鐵路領域混改拉開大幕;武漢郵科院與電信科研院實施聯合重組。可以預見,下半年國資國企改革力度將進一步加大。

  首先,央企重組將提速增質。國資委近日召開中央企業重組整合工作座談會。國資委副主任、黨委委員翁杰明要求,要提高政治站位,充分認識重組的重要意義和整合融合任務的復雜性、艱巨性,進一步加大工作力度,扎實推進整合融合,確保實現重組預期目標。由此可見,并購重組將成為下半年國企改革發展重點之一。強強聯合、拆分重組、混合參股、關停并轉、內部重組等多種方式重組整合案例將持續涌現,裝備制造、煤炭、電力、通信、化工等領域央企的戰略性重組將穩步推進。

  其次,混合所有制改革將在更廣更深層次上加快破局。國資委主任肖亞慶今年以來曾多次表示,鼓勵外企參與國企混改。國家發展改革委、商務部日前聯合發布2018年版外商投資準入負面清單、2018年版自貿區外商投資準入負面清單,大幅放寬市場準入、深入推進高水平開放。第三批混改試點名單共31家,加上此前兩批試點共達50家。隨著改革實施“雙百行動”,試點從單個走向綜合。預計下半年混改方案可能會密集批復實施,鐵路、軍工等行業將亮點頻現。集團層面混改將再迎突破,競爭類企業按照一定規則和速度降低國有股權比例,出讓控股權案例將進一步增多。外資參與國企混改可能將迎來新進展,汽車等行業有望率先破題。

  第三,“管資本”將邁出新步伐。國資委主任肖亞慶在今年中央企業、地方國資委負責人會議上表示,今年進一步擴大兩類公司試點范圍,著力提高國有資本運作效率和水平,創新國有資本運營模式。從今年國資委高層調研足跡看,投資和運營公司試點情況亦是關注的重要內容之一。其中,作為國有資本運營公司試點之一的中國誠通值得關注。央企結構調整指數由中國誠通牽頭發起設立、中證指數公司編制并發布。以中證央企結構調整指數為跟蹤標的的三只央企結構調整ETF和聯接基金已獲監管部門批準。此舉將進一步盤活上市央企,吸引多元化資本參與央企改革。國有資本投資和運營公司試點有望擴圍升級,在央企引領下,地方國企改革ETF有望全面鋪開,國資證券化將進一步提速。

  第四,國企“債轉股”將全面提速。央行近日決定,自5日起,下調國有大型商業銀行、股份制商業銀行、郵政儲蓄銀行、城市商業銀行、非縣域農村商業銀行、外資銀行人民幣存款準備金率0.5個百分點,進一步推進市場化法治化“債轉股”,加大對小微企業的支持力度。考慮到國有大型商業銀行和股份制商業銀行是市場化法治化“債轉股”的主力軍,通過定向降準釋放一定數量成本適當的長期資金,能形成正向激勵,提高其實施“債轉股”的能力。鼓勵相關銀行和實施主體按照不低于1:1的比例撬動社會資金參與“債轉股”項目。

  業界預計有約1萬億元資金參與“債轉股”,這將有助于解決“債轉股”資金短缺問題,提高實施“債轉股”能力,加快簽約項目落地。在這一背景下,國企可通過“債轉股”進一步降杠桿、深化國資證券化水平。

  今年是改革開放四十周年,在以更大力度自主開放促改革、謀發展的大背景下,國企改革正醞釀新突破,全面開啟高質量發展新征程。國企將進入并購重組大時代,也將進入混合經濟大時代。可以預見,改革將加速推進,為打造“新國企”、實現新發展再次注入新動力。

 

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